Post by Oleg Smirnov
"Oleg Smirnov" wrote in message
The European 'civilization' was not so 'majestic' in the 15th century. It
became more 'majestic' later mainly due to the colonial exploitation
practices, and - in the particular British-American case - also due to the
intensive and ruthless use of the African slaves. The slave labor greatly
contributed to the accelerated economic development, and on the base of
that the 'majestic civilization' became possible. The black-skinned
descendants of those slaves are in no way an alien element in 'western
civilization', they are an integral and essential part of it, because
without those slaves such a 'civilization' simply could not happen.
You're just jealous because the Czars never exploited their serfs enough...
Likening the American slavery to the (east-)European serfdom is one of
the smartass myths promoted by the ideologues of the 'western' Nazism in
order to make the American shit look less shitty.
Another smartass myth, for example, is to explain the extinction of the
indigenous peoples in the N. America by epidemic diseases rather than by
genocidal practice of the European invaders.
What..you are in denial of the facts?
Disease as a weapon against Native Americans
"You will do well to try to inoculate the Indians, by means of
blankets, as well as to try every other method that can serve to
extirpate this execrable race." Jeffery Amherst
The spread of disease from European contact was not always accidental.
Europeans arriving in the Americas had long been exposed to the
diseases, attaining a measure of immunity, and thus were not as
severely affected by them. Therefore, disease could be an effective
During the French and Indian War, Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst,
Britain's commander in chief in North America authorized the use of
smallpox to wipe out their Native American enemy. In his writings to
Colonel Henry Bouquet about the situation in western Pennsylvania,
Amherst suggested that the spread of disease would be beneficial in
achieving their aims. Colonel Bouquet confirmed his intentions to do
Biological warfare during the Siege of Fort Pitt
"Out of our regard to them we gave them two Blankets and an
Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope it will have the
William Trent, William Trent's Journal at Fort Pitt
This event is well known for the documented instances of biological
warfare. British officers, including the top British commanding
generals, ordered, sanctioned, paid for and conducted the use of
smallpox against the Native Americans. As described by one historian,
"there is no doubt that British military authorities approved of
attempts to spread smallpox among the enemy", and "it was deliberate
British policy to infect the indians with smallpox".
In this instance, as recorded in his journal by sundries trader and
militia Captain William Trent, on June 24, 1763, dignitaries from the
Delaware tribe met with Fort Pitt officials, warned them of "great
numbers of Indians" coming to attack the fort, and pleaded with them
to leave the fort while there was still time. But the commander of the
fort refused to abandon the fort. Instead, the British gave as gifts
two blankets, one silk handkerchief and one linen from the smallpox
hospital, to two Delaware delegates after the parley, a principal
warrior named Turtleheart, and Maumaultee, a Chief. The tainted gifts
were, according to their inventory accounts, given to the Indian
dignitaries "to Convey the Smallpox to the Indians".
INVOICE for 1763 June
Levy, Trent and Company: Account against the Crown, Aug. 13, 1763
"To Sundries got to Replace in kind those which were taken from people
in the Hospital to Convey the Smallpox to the Indians Vizt:
2 Blankets @ 20/ £299 099 0
1 Silk Handkerchef 10/
& 1 linnen do: 3/6 099 1399 6
Captain Ecuyer later certified that the items "were had for the uses
above mentioned", in the inventory reimbursement request, and General
Thomas Gage would later approve that invoice for payment, endorsing it
with a comment and his signature.
While Ecuyer, Trent and McKee were conducting their early form of
biological warfare upon the Indian dignitaries at Fort Pitt, their
superiors were discussing similar plans. General Amherst, having
learned that smallpox had broken out among the garrison at Fort Pitt,
and after learning on July 7 of the loss of his forts at Venango, Le
Boeuf and Presqu'Isle, wrote to Colonel Bouquet, "Could it not be
contrived to send the small pox among the disaffected tribes of
Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to
reduce them." In addition, Amherst wrote, "Captain Ecuyer Seems to Act
with great Prudence, & I approve of everything he mentions to have
done." Bouquet, who was already marching to relieve Fort Pitt and Fort
Detroit, responded on the 13th, "I will try to inoculate the Indians
with some blankets that may fall into their hands, and take care not
to get the disease myself. I wish we could make use of the Spanish
method to hunt them with English dogs, supported by rangers and some
light horse, who would, I think, effectually extirpate or remove that
vermin." On July 16, Amherst replied, "You will do well to try to
inoculate the Indians by means of blankets, as well as to try every
other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race. I should
be very glad your scheme for hunting them down by dogs could take
effect, but England is at too great a distance to think of that at
General Amherst, July 8: "Could it not be contrived to Send the Small
Pox among those Disaffected Tribes of Indians? We must, on this
occasion, Use Every Stratagem in our power to Reduce them."
Colonel Bouquet, July 13: "I will try to inocculate the Indians by
means of Blankets that may fall in their hands, taking care however
not to get the disease myself."
Amherst, July 16: "You will Do well to try to Innoculate the Indians
by means of Blanketts, as well as to try Every other method that can
serve to Extirpate this Execreble Race."
Bouquet, July 19: "all your Directions will be observed."
Papers of Col. Henry Bouquet, ed. Stevens and Kent, ser. 21634, p.
The correspondence between Amherst and Bouquet reflected how pervasive
Indian hating had become by 1763 and how far British officers were
willing to go in ignoring their own soldiers' code of warfare. A
devastating smallpox epidemic plagued Native American tribes in the
Ohio Valley and Great Lakes area through 1763 and 1764, but the
effectiveness of individual instances of biological warfare remains
unknown. After extensive review of surviving documentary evidence,
historian Francis Jennings concluded the attempt at biological warfare
was "unquestionably effective at Fort Pitt"; Barbara Mann deduced
"it is important to note that the smallpox distribution worked";
Howard Peckham noted the resulting fatal epidemic "certainly affected
their vigorous prosecution of the war".
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